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Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials

Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials

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Description
Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation is
intended to assist the criminal justice system to disseminate real justice. It intends to dispense with the inhumane, immoral and illegal traditional evidential
tools:
•   The infamous HI degree methods
•  The parroted versions of the tutored witnesses
•  The police approved statements of the inducted fake approvers
•  The glib gatha of the ever available stock-witnesses
•  The dictated confessions from the  accused (criminal or innocent) and
•  The physical fake padding introduced to link the accused with the crimes.
Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials intends to assist to usher in scientific era. The works make it possible for the handlers of the criminal justice system to understand the potentialities, the limitations and the processes of Forensic Science. The present work is the messiah to inform the concerned how it can be done. The criminal must exchange physical clues with all the entities with which he comes in contact in the commission of crime. It tells how these clues are exchanged, located, collected, preserved, integrity and authenticity maintained, evaluated and compared and how the criminal is interlinked with the victim, with the crime scene, with the weapon of offence, with the vehicle used and the routes and sites visited. It tells how the evidence is presented in courts to make it intelligible and convincing.
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Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction
    
1.1 - Forensic Science
    1.2 - Nature
    1.3 - Need
    1.4 - Functions
    1.5 - Development
    1.6 - Principles
    1.7 - Tools and Techniques
    1.8 - Forensic Science Institutions
    1.9 - Additional Readings
    1.9 - Expert Testimony
    1.10 - Supreme Court Cases-21st Century
Chapter 2 - Criminal Investigation
   
  2.1 - General
    2.2 - Criminal Investigation
    2.3 - Case Law
    2.4 - Supreme Court Cases-21st Century
Chapter 3 - Forensic Science in Trials
    
3.1 - Trials
    3.2 - Problems or Proof
    3.3 - Expert Testimony
    3.4 - The Prosecution Counsel
    3.5 - Defence Counsel
    3.6 - The Judge
    3.7 - Fallacies About Expert Evidence
    3.8 - Time Limit
    3.9 - Case Law
    3.10 - Supreme Court Cases-21st Century
Chapter 4 - Relevant Law
    
4.1 - Enacted Law
    4.2 - Case Law : [Landmark judgment)
Chapter 5 - Scene of Occurrence
    
5.1 - Importance
    5.2 - The Problems
    5.3 - Location
    5.4 - Evaluation
    5.5 - Modern Aids
    5.6 - Scene Management Documentation
    5.7 - Additional Readings
    5.8 - Case Law
Chapter 6 - Fingerprints
   
  6.1 - Importance
    6.2 - Nature
    6.3 - Location
    6.4 - Collection
    6.5 - Single Digit System
    6.6 - Computers in Fingerprints
    6.7 - Evaluation
    6.8 - Presentation
    6.9 - Legal Aspects
    6.10 - Miscellaneous
    6.11 - Case Law
    6.12 - Supreme Court Cases-21st Century
Chapter 7 - Track Marks
  
  7.1 - Importance
    7.2 - Nature
    7.3 - Problems
    7.4 - Location
    7.5 - Collection
    7.6 - Recent Techniques
    7.7 - Evaluation
    7.8 - Presentation
    7.9 - Acceptability
    7.10 - Additional Reading
    7.11 - Case Law
Chapter 8 - Tool Marks
  
  8.1 - Importance
    8.2 - Nature
    8.3 - Location
    8.4 - Collection
    8.5 - Evaluation
    8.6 - Case Law
Chapter 9 - Firearms
   
  9.1 - Importance
    9.2 - Nature
    9.3 - The Problems
    9.4 - Location
    9.5 - Collection
    9.6 - Evaluation
    9.7 - Odd Identifications
    9.8 - Gunshot Residues
    9.9 - Range of Fire
    9.10 - Firearm Injuries
    9.11 - Reconstructions
    9.12 - Duration of Fire
    9.13 - Muzzle- Loading Firearms
    9.14 - Improvised Firearms
    9.15 - Miscellaneous
    9.16 - Presentation of Evidence
    9.17 - Additional Reading
    9.18 - Case Law
    9.19 - Supreme Court Cases-21st Century
Chapter 10 - Documents
   
  10.1 - Importance
    10.2 - Nature
    10.3 - The Problems
    10.4 - Location
    10.5 - Collection
    10.6 - Evaluation
    10.7 - Specific problem
    10.8 - Type Material
    10.9 - Inks
    10.10 - Paper
    10.11 - Erasures
    10.12 - Secret Writings
    10.13 - Burnt Documents
    10.14 - Age of Documents
    10.15 - Obliterations
    10.16 - Sequence of Strokes
    10.17 - Indented Writings
    10.18 - Closed Envelopes
    10.19 - Writing Instrument
    10.20 - Presentation
    10.21 - Additional Readings
    10.22 - Case Law
Chapter 11 - Poisons
    
11.1 - Importance
    11.2 - Nature
    11.3 - Location
    11.4 - Collection
    11.5 - The Problems
    11.6 - Evaluation
    11.7 - Individual Poisons
    11.8 - Miscellaneous Poisons
    11.9 - Presentation
    11.10 - Judicial Proof
    11.11 - Additional Readings
    11.12 - Case Law
Chapter 12 - Narcotics
    
12.1 - Introduction
    12.2 - Addiction
    12.3 - Drugs and Crimes
    12.4 - Classification
    12.5 - Evidentiary Clues
    12.6 - Forensic Problems
    12.7 - Sedatives
    12.8 - Stimulants
    12.9 - Hallucinogens
    12.10 - Recent Trends
    12.11 - Case Law
    12.12 - Supreme Court Cases - 21st Century
Chapter 13 - Alcohol
 
   13.1 - Importance
    13.2 - Nature
    13.3 - Location and Collection
    13.4 - Problems
    13.5 - Evaluation
    13.6 - Case Law
    13.7 - Supreme Court Cases - 21st Century
Chapter 14 - Explosives and Explosions
    
14.1 - General
    14.2 - Accidental Explosions
    14.3 - Individual Explosives
    14.4 - Explosives Devices
    14.5 - Explosive Devices
    14.6 - Improvised Explosive Devices
    14.7 - Improvised Explosive Devices
    14.8 - Investigations of Hidden Explosives
    14.9 - Investigations
    14.10 - Disposal of Ieds
    14.11 - Problems
    14.12 - Evaluation
    14.13 - Modern Facilities
    14.14 - Additional Readings
    14.15 - Case Law
Chapter 15 - Fires
    
15.1 - Importance
    15.2 - Nature
    15.3 - Collection of Clues
    15.4 - Problems
    15.5 - Evaluation
    15.6 - Expert Testimony
    15.7 - Additional Readings
    15.7 - Case Law
Chapter 16 - Motor Vehicles
   
  16.1 - Importance 
    16.2 - Nature
    16.3 - The Problems
    16.4 - Evidentiary Clues
    16.5 - Collection
    16.6 - Evaluation
    16.7 - Resuscitation of Vehicle Numbers
    16.8 - Case Law
Chapter 17 - Microtraces
    
17.1 - Importance
    17.2 - Nature
    17.3 - Location
    17.4 - Collection
    17.5 - Forensic Problems
    17.6 - Evaluations
    17.7 - Individual Microtraces
    17.8 - Specific Traces – Fibres
    17.9 - Specific Traces – Glass
    17.10 - Additional Readings
Chapter 18 - Hairs
    
18.1 - Importance
    18.2 - Nature 
    18.3 - Problems
    18.4 - Location
    18.5 - Collection
    18.6 - Evaluation
    18.7 - Specific Problems
    18.8 - Case Law
Chapter 19 - Body Fluids
    
19.1 - Blood
    19.2 - Semen
    19.3 - Other Body Fluids
    19.4 - Case Law
Chapter 20 - DNA Profiling
    
20.1 - Importance
    20.2 - Nature
    20.3 - Evidentiary Clue Materials
    20.4 - Evaluations
    20.5 - DNA Profile Records
    20.6 - Case Studies
    20.7 - Setting Standards
    20.8 - Additional Readings
    20.9 - Case Law
    20.10 - Supreme Court Cases - 21st Century
Chapter 21 - Elementary Forensic Medicine
    
21.1 - Death Investigation
    21.2 - Murder, Suicide or Accident
    21.3 - Identification of Death
    21.4 - Time of Death
    21.5 - Cause of Death
    21.6 - Identification of Dead
    21.7 - Skeletal Remains
    21.8 - Sexual Offences
    21.9 - Incest
    21.10 - Unnatural Offences
    21.11 - Minor Sexual Offences
    21.12 - Abortion
    21.13 - Infanticide
    21.14 - Case Law
    21.15 - Supreme Court Cases - 21st Century
Chapter 22 - Computers
    
22.1 - Importance
    22.2 - Computers and Law
    22.3 - Nature
    22.4 - Computer Work
Chapter 23 - Computer/Cyber Crime Crimes
  
  23.1 - General
    23.2 - Classification
    23.3 - Computer Criminals
    23.4 - Prevention
    23.5 - Computer Crime Investigation
    23.6 - Additional Readings 
Chapter 24 - Digit Image Forensics
    
24.1 - General
    24.2 - Importance
    24.3 - Nature
    24.4 - Quality Control
    24.5 - Applications
    24.6 - Tinkered Digital Images
    24.7 - Additional Readings
Chapter 25 - Cell Phone Forensics
    
25.1 - General
    25.2 - Practical Police Work
    25.3 - Problems
    25.4 - Forensic Process
    25.5 - Anti-Forensic Software
    25.6 - Service Provider Logs
    25.7 - Evidence Presentation
    25.8 - Additional Readings
Chapter 26 - Voice Analysis
    
26.1 - Introduction
    26.2 - Importance
    26.3 - Nature
    26.4 - Operational Problems
    26.5 - Voice Text collections
    26.6 - Evaluation
    26.7 - Interpretation
    26.8 - Miscellaneous
    26.9 - Additional Reading
    26.10 - Case Law
Chapter 27 - Forensic Psychology
    
27.1 - Definition
    27.2 - Nature
    27.3 - Application
    27.4 - Classification
    27.5 - Problems
    27.6 - Collection of Evidence
    27.7 - Psychology in Interrogation
    27.8 - Additional Reading
    27.9 - Case Law
    27.10 - Supreme Court on Brain Printing - 21st Century
    27.11 - Conclusion
Chapter 28 - Psychological Detection of Deception (PDD) (Lie Detection)
    
28.1 - General
    28.2 - Scientific Basis
    28.3 - Operational Environment
    28.4 - Legal Muddle
    28.5 - Application and Utility
    28.6 - Limitations
    28.7 - Criticism and Rebuttal
    28.8 - Legal Status
    28.9 - Recent Advances
    28.10 - Additional Readings
    28.11 - Case Law
    28.12 - Conclusion
Chapter 29 - Narcoanalysis Interrogation (Truth Serum Test)
    
29.1 - General
    29.2 - Process
    29.3 - Importance
    29.4 - Success Stories
    29.5 - Narcoanalysis as Science
    29.6 - Legal Muddle
    29.7 - Conclusion
    29.8 - Additional Readings
    29.9 - Case Law
Chapter 30 - Criminal Profiling in Forensics
    
30.1 - General
    30.2 - Criminal Profiling Process
    30.3 - Data for Profiling
    30.4 - Profiling Process
    30.5 - Some Profiles
    30.6 - Conclusion
    30.7 - Additional Readings
Chapter 31 - Forensic Anthropology
    
31.1 - General
    31.2 - Practical Police Work (PPW)
    31.3 - Forensic Anthropologist in Action
    31.4 - Forensic Anthropologist's Presentation
    31.6 - Additional Readings
    31.7 - Supreme Court Cases - 21st Century
Chapter 32 - Forensic Odontology
    
32.1 - General
    32.2 - Importance
    32.3 - Nature
    32.4 - Bite Marks
    32.5 - Practical Police Work
    32.6 - Forensic Odontologist
    32.7 - Bite Marks
    32.8 - Age Determination
    32.9 - Advancing Fronts in Forensic Odontology
    32.10 - Limitations of Forensic Odontolgy
    32.11 - Additional Readings
Chapter 33 - Forensic Entomology
    
33.1 - General
    33.2 - Importance
    33.3 - Nature
    33.4 - Evidentiary Clues - Practical Police Work
    33.5 - Evaluation
    33.6 - Conclusions
    33.7 - Additional Readings
Subject Index
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Author Details
Dr. B.R. Sharma
has his basic education in chemistry. He worked for M.Sc. (Hons.) and Ph. D. in Delhi University Laboratories alter obtaining his B.Sc. (Hons.) degree from Punjab University.
Dr. Sharma, just before completion of his Ph.D. degree, was selected as Director, C.I.D. Scientific Laboratory, Punjab at the age of 26. Dr. Sharma has been heading, since then, various Forensic Science Institutions, (State ES.L. in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Union Territories; CFSL, (GOL, MHA), Chandigarh, etc.). He retired in September 1993.
Dr. Sharma has his rigorous training in documents in Scotland and has been a teacher in Forensic Science for about three decades. His appointments include Honorary Visiting Professor to Punjab University, Guest faculty member to Punjabi University, Patiala, Dr. H.S. Gaur University, Sagar, National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Central Detective Training School and numerous zonal/Regional Staff Training Colleges of various Banks (SBI, PNB, Canara Bank, SBOP, P&S Bank, Former NBI, etc.).
Dr. Sharma has done extensive research work. His researches in the identification of initials, digital writings, rubrics and symbols through Natural Variants remains unique piece of research in documents examination. He has guided doctoral thesis research. He has authored in about 100 papers /articles both in Indian and foreign journals.
His other works are: Firearms in Criminal Investigation and Trials, Bank Frauds-Prevention and Detection, Footprints Tracks and Trails, Scientific Criminal Investigation, Genie against Crime, etc.
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